Few Western journalists have ever visited the open-cast mine in China's Inner Mongolia - and with reason. It spews out 420,000 cubic feet of toxic gas for every ton of rare metal mined, along with acidic waste water and radioactive material.
Nasa's Terra satellite has captured the growth of the secretive facility over five years - as China aims to stockpile rare earths to gain an economic advantage against the West.
In 2008, China supplied 139,000 tons worldwide, 97 per cent of the world's total rare-earth production.
The architect of modern China, Deng Xiaoping, realised the significance of the elements lurking in the arid wastes of Inner Mongolia almost 20 years ago when he said: 'There is oil in the Middle East but there is rare-earth in China.'
With names like cerium, lanthanum, and ytterbium, rare earth elements aren’t exactly household names.
But the consumer products they are used in - such as magnets, camera lenses, and batteries - certainly are.
There are 17 rare earth elements in all, but these key metals aren’t as rare as the name suggests. (In fact, some are relatively abundant in Earth’s crust.)
The vast majority of rare earths—96 percent of the market—come from China.
China has a stranglehold on the global supply of 17 rare earth materials essential for making high-end goods such as hybrid cars, camera lenses, mobile phones and weapons.
About half come from Bayan Obo, a single mine.
On July 2, 2001 (below) and June 30, 2006 (above), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired these false-color views of the mine in the Nei Mongol Autonomous Region.
Vegetation appears red, grassland is light brown, rocks are black, and water surfaces are green. Two circular open-pit mines are visible, as well as a number of tailings ponds and tailings piles. Use the image comparison tool to see how the mine has grown larger since 2001. According to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report, China produced about 81,000 tons of rare earth metals in 2001; the number jumped to about 120,000 by 2006.
Such an intensive mining operation has a definite impact on the surrounding environment. According to the Chinese Society of Rare Earths, 9,600 to 12,000 cubic meters (340,000 to 420,000 cubic feet) of waste gas—containing dust concentrate, hydrofluoric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid—are released with every ton of rare metals that are mined.
Approximately 75 cubic meters (2,600 cubic feet) of acidic wastewater, plus about a ton of radioactive waste residue are also produced.
Around 100 miles south of Baiyun Obo, larger rare-earth refineries sit around the banks of the world's largest tailing lake, Baogang - seven square miles of evil-smelling toxic waste that shows the shocking extent of this industry's impact.